Amino Acid and Mineral Supplementation in Fermentation Process of Concentrate Protein of Jatropha Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L.)
The purpose of this study is to assess the optimization of fermentation process by adding a minerals and amino acids so that the potential of protein of Concentrate Protein-Jatropha seed cake (CP-JSC) can be optimally used as a substitute for soybean meal. The method used was completely randomized design. The treatment consisted of F1: Fermentation CP-BBJ + methionine-lysine (0.25%: 0.25%), F2: Fermentation CP-JSC + methionine-lysine (0.5%: 0.5%), F3: F1 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate, F4: F2 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate. Each treatment was repeated four times, When treatment significantly continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD), variables observed are the levels of antinutrients (phorbolester, antitrypsin), the levels of nutrients (fat, protein, crude fiber, Ca, P and gross energy) and amino acid. Results of analysis of variance showed that the addition of amino acids and minerals Ca, P in the fermentation process was highly significant effect on the levels of crude fiber and phosphorus (P <0.01) and significantly affected the gross energy content of CP-JSC post-fermentation (P <0.05). Dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid and calcium are not affected by supplementation of methionine and lysine as well as calcium and phosphorus. Supplementation of methionine and lysine in the fermentation substrate showed good levels of essential amino acids and non essential higher than previous studies although not statistically significant (P> 0.05). While the levels obtained phorbolester range of 0.055% - 0.08%. It was concluded that the optimization of fermentation can be done without adding the amino acid supplementation of minerals calcium and phosphorus. Supplementation significantly affect a significant increase or decrease in some nutrients (crude fiber, gross energy, phosphor) and capable of suppressing a decrease in amino acids. Supplementation of amino acids Lysine and Methionin 0.05% is the best treatment.
AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th Ed. Published by: AOAC International. Maryland. USA.
Aregheore EM, K Becker and HPS Makkar. 2003. Detoxification of a toxic variety of Jatropha curcas using heat and chemical treatments, and preliminary nutritional evaluation with rats. S.Pac.J.Nat.Sci. 21 : 50 – 56
Arnouts S and Vandendriessche J. 2007. The Effect of lectin in Combination with sodium butyrate on the performance of broilers. INVE Technologies. Hoogveld 93. 9200 Dendermonde. Belgium
Chivandi E, KH Erlwanger, SM Makuza, JS Read and JP Mtimuni. 2006. Effects of dietary jatropha curcas meal on percent packet cell volume, serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and alpha- amylase activity of weaned fattening pigs. Res. J. of Anim. Vet. Sci. 1 (1): 18- 24.
Crueger W and A Crueger. 1984. Biotechnology: A Texbook of Industrial Microbiology. Science tech. Inc. Madison. USA.
Del Valle, FR. 1981. Nutritional Qualities of Soya Protein as Affected by Processing. JAOCS. 58 : 519
Despal, N Sigit and P Hasanah. 2007. Nutrient content and digestibility in vitro detoxified jatropha seed cake (Jatropha curcas L.). In: Proceeding National Seminar AINI IV. ISBN 978-979-16617•0-6.
Goel, G, HPS Makkar, G Francis, and K Becker. 2007. Phorbol Esters: Structure, Biological Activity, and Toxicity in Animals. International Journal of Toxicology. 26:279–288. DOI: 10.1080/10915810701464641.
Gogoi, R, UK Niyogi and AK Tyagi. 2014. Reduction of phorbol ester content in jatropha cake using high energy gamma radiation. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied. Sciences. 7 ( 2014 ) p: 305-309
Herera MJ, P Siddhuraju, G Francis, GD Ortiz and K Becker. 2006. Chemical composition, toxic/antimetabolic constituens, and effects of different treatments on their levels, in four provenances of Jatropha curcas L. From Mexico. Food Chem. 96 p : 80-89.
Makkar HPS, AO Aderibigbe and K Becker. 1998. Comparative Evaluation of Non Toxic an Toxic varieties of Jatropha curcas for Chemical Composition, Digestibility, Protein Degradability and Toxic Factors. Food Chem. 62 : 207 – 215.
Makkar HPS and K Becker. 1999a. Plats toxins and detoxification methods to improve feed quality of tropical seeds – Review. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12 (3) : 467 – 480.
Makkar HPS, G Francis and K Beckers. 2008. Protein concentrate from Jatropha curcas screw-pressed seed cake and toxic and anti-nutritional factors in protein concentrate. J. Sci of Food and Agric. 88: 9, 2008 , pp. 1542-1548(7)
Makkar, HPS. 2016. State-of-the-art on detoxification of Jatropha curcas products aimed for use as animal and fish feed: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 222 p: 87 – 99
Moure, A, J Sineiro, H Dominguez and JC Parajo. 2006. Functionality of oilseed protein products: a review. Food Res. Int. 39(9):945–963
Muchtadi, 1989. Evaluation of Food Nutritional Value. Ministry of Education and Culture Inter-University General Centre Food and Nutrition, Bogor Agriculture University.
Mulyantini NGA, RL Ulrikus, WL Bryden, and X Li. 2010. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter. Animal Production 12(1): 6 – 11.
Parsons, C.M. 2002. Digestibility and bioavailability of protein and amino acids in: Poultry Feedstuffs Supply, Composition and Nutritive Value. Edited by: JM Mc Nab and KN Boorman. Poultry Science Symposium Series vol 26. CABI Publishing. England.
Pasaribu T, E Wina, B Tangendjaja and S Iskandar. 2009. Performance of chicken fed with Jatropha seed cake (Jatropha curcas) physical and chemical process product. JITV 14(1): 11-18.
Saetae, D, T Kleekayai, V Jayasena, and W Suntornsuk. 2011. Functional properties of protein isolate obtained from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seed cake. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 20(1): 29–37
Saono. 1986. Fermentation of Prawn Sell and Its Metabolit. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/5908/5/05_chapter%203.pdf. Accessed on 24 April 2013.
Siddhuraju UP. Becker, K. 2001b. Preliminary Nutritional evaluation of Mucuna Seed Meal (Mucuna pruriens var utilis) in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) : An Assesment by Growth Performance and Feed Utilisation. Aquaculture. 196 : 105 – 123.
Smith, C, WV Megen, L Twalfhoven and C Hitchcock. 1980. The determination of trypsin inhibitor levels in foodstuffs. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Vol. 31. P: 341 – 350.
Steel RGD and JH Torrie. 1993. Principle and Statistical Procedure of Biometric Approach. 2nd Ed. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.
Timotius. 2010. Fermentation Asam Laktat. http://lordbroken.wordpress.com/2010/08/25/fermentation-asam-laktat. Accessed on 24th April 2013.
Widiyastuti T and CH Prayitno. 2011. Microintestinal Environmental Manipulation Using lectin Jatropha Seed Meal as Attachment Media of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Influence On The haematological profile of Poultry. Proceeding 2ndInternasional Seminar and 8thBiannual Meeting AINI. UNPAD. Jatinangor.
Widiyastuti T and M Indradji. 2011. Study of Complete Feed made of fermented Jatropha seed cake and the effect on performance of weaned rabbit. In: Proceedings of National Seminar Development of Rural Resources and Local Wisdom, Research Center of Food Nutrition and Health. LPPM UNSOED, 23rd-24th November, 2011.
Widiyastuti T, TR Sutardi and M Indradji. 2012. Optimizing Protein Concentrate of Jatropha seed cake through the combined chemical and biological technique using LAB and the utilization for rabbit feed. Research report. First year. Faculty of Animal Science UNSOED. Purwokerto.
Widiyastuti, T, CH Prayitno and N Iriyanti. 2013. Digestibility and Blood Metabolite Profiles of Chicken Fed Fermented Jatropha Seed Meal. Animal Production 15(2):98-105
Widiyastuti T, M Indradji, A Wibowo and R Hendroko. 2014. Biorefinery of Jatropha Seed Cake by Lactid Acid Bacteria and The Effects on Hematological Profile of Rex Rabbit. Energy Procedia. 47 (2014). P: 290 – 294. DOI: 10.1016/J.Egypro.2014.01.227. ISSN: 1876 – 6102.
Widiyastuti, T., T,R, Sutardi and M. Indradji. 2015. Quality of Protein Concentrate from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake Produced by Chemical and Biological Processing. The 5th International Conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture for Developing Countries October 27-30, 2015 Pattaya, Thailand www.saadc2015.com.
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.